Individualized Education Plans are meant to bring teachers, specialists, therapists, and parents together to develop an educational program for the student. This plan – IEP – will support progress in the general curriculum and meet other educational and functional needs resulting from the disability. In general IEPs are meant to help the student, parents and school personnel all get on the proverbial “same page” when it comes to the needs of the student. Unfortunately, some educational terms and acronyms are confusing and get lost in the wording of the plan. Here is a quick cheat sheet to help you decipher an IEP.
- IEP – Individualized Education Plan
- Accommodations – Resources given to the child. For example, taking a test in a small group, having a longer time to take the test, taking the test in a different environment. While the test had not changed the needs of the student have been taken into account.
- Early Intervention – These are services provided to children 0-36 months who are at risk of having a disability or have been diagnosed with a disability. Early intervention has been shown to help children progress.
- Inclusion – This is a term used to describe services given to a special education student in the general education classroom with appropriate supports and modifications.
- Free Appropriate Public Education (FAPE) – Special Education and related services are provided at the public’s expense, without charge to the parents.
- Individuals with Disabilities Education Act (IDEA 2004) – In 1975, legislation was written guaranteeing students with disabilities a free and appropriate public education and the right to be educated with their non-disabled peers. IDEA was revised in 2004.
- Least Restrictive Environment (LRE) – The placement of a child with special needs in the general school population in a manner that promotes the maximum possible interaction with general education students.
- OT – Occupational Therapy/Therapist – An Occupational Therapist supports school staff in the areas of fine motor and sensory integration. Fine motor being skills such as writing, picking up objects, and pointing.
- PT – Physical Therapy/Therapist – A Physical Therapist supports school staff in the area of gross motor. Gross motor focuses on larger muscle sets and include walking, throwing, climbing.
Seems like everyone is stressed out lately. Whether it is work, home, kids, traffic, politics or the constantly growing piles of bills. There seems like there is always something triggering our stress on a day-to-day basis. For parents who have children with special needs, the never-ending balancing act of work and caregiving can be overwhelming. In addition, finding ways to reduce stress can be elusive and time consuming. Here is a quick list of ways that you can reduce stress in your life even if it is just for a few minutes a day.
- Try progressive relaxation. To to get those muscles to relax all the way from your fingers to toes. First tense each set of muscles then relax them.
- Practice deep breathing exercises. This has been shown to lower cortisol levels, which can help reduce stress and anxiety. Studies suggest deep breathing can also cause a temporary drop in blood pressure.
- Practice doing daily exercise even if it is only a quick walk around the block or yoga stretches in your bedroom.
- Cut down on caffeine and alcohol. These may make you depressed or on edge.
- Pet your dog or cat. Dog owners have been shown to be less stressed out—most likely thanks to having a buddy to cuddle.
- Take a power nap. Even ten or fifteen minutes can help reduce your cortisol level and help you focus. Sleep deprivation can only heighten your stress.
- Do something you love whether it is gardening, art, writing, drawing or shopping. Treat yourself to something that brings you joy. Can’t find the time? Try visualizing it until you can do it.
- Laugh often. Parents who are stressed often find stress reduction in talking and laughing with other parents who are in the same boat.
- Physical touch can help. Stress can be reduced when you hug, hold hands, snuggle or kiss.
- Listen to music. While it doesn’t need to be classical it should be music that is calming and allows you to get your mind off the stressor for a moment.
If you are having difficulty reducing the stress in your life – talk to your friends, relatives or even a therapist to find ways to cut back on stress and anxiety in your life.
If someone asked a layperson,” what are the common issues that face a child with autism?”, many would answer issues with communication, socialization or several other matters related to the disorder. While these issues are common, gastrointestinal problems are among the most common of issues, unfortunately. These issues range from chronic constipation or diarrhea to irritable and inflammatory bowel conditions.
According to Autism Research Institute, a recent study has shown just how prevalent GI issues really are within the autism population. The study showed that 70% of the children with ASD had GI Issues compared to 42% of the children with developmental disorder other than ASD. Just like everyone else, people with autism may suffer: Gastritis, GERD, Colitis, Irritable Bowel Syndrome, constipation, Motility-based disorders or food allergies and sensitivities. Two of the more common issues involve chronic constipation and chronic diarrhea.
- Chronic Constipation – Although occasional constipation happens to all of us at some time in our lives, chronic constipation can be a serious condition. Because constipation is particularly common among children with autism special dietary restrictions or medication are regularly adhered to. Medication may be needed to keep children and teens regular.
- Chronic Diarrhea – Again, we can all relate to a bout or two of diarrhea in our lifetimes, but chronic diarrhea can be painful and difficult to deal with. Chronic diarrhea may have a number of causes including intestinal infection, immune dysfunction, inflammatory bowel diseases (Crohn’s or ulcerative colitis), irritable bowel syndrome, celiac disease (gluten intolerance), food allergies, lactose intolerance, or excessive consumption of certain foods such as apple juice. Treatment for this GI problem is usually dependent upon what is causing the issue, whether it is a dietary change, infection or other cause.
Raising children can be stressful. Raising children on the spectrum tends to be even more stress inducing when you factor in therapy appointments, schooling issues, nutritional issues, medical factors, and the list goes on and on. According to Raising Children with Autism online resource, families of children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) often report high levels of stress. In fact, many see it as a normal part of a family’s journey with ASD.
Gender and Stress
In many families, unfortunately, mothers tend to take the brunt of the stress on themselves. Mothers often report feeling stressed more than fathers – possibly because mothers tend to be the primary caregivers in the majority of families. Particular sources of stress for mothers include their children’s unpredictable sleeping patterns, limited ability to express emotion, and fussy eating. Furthermore, research at the Autism Network has shown that women in families with a child on the spectrum tend to bear the brunt of day-to-day burdens and domestic labor, end up responsible for managing the higher levels of conflict in these families (between autistic and non-autistic siblings, for example), and receive more blame from outsiders and their spouse for their child’s behavior. For fathers, children’s difficult behavior is often reported as a cause of stress. Each family member has their own thing that brings on the stress or pushes buttons to make activities or regular day events stressful.
Researchers at Vanderbilt University – a part of the Autism Speaks Autism Treatment Network – report that mothers of children with autism benefit significantly from weekly stress-reduction classes led by other mothers. The classes reduced previously high levels of personal stress, anxiety and depression, and improved the moms’ interactions with their children. The greatest benefits came with a simple “mindfulness” program involving self-relaxation techniques. For more information about family stress and seeking help, read more at Autism Speaks or at Raising Children with Autism.
According to the Mayo Clinic, Rett syndrome is a rare genetic neurological and developmental disorder that affects the way the brain develops, causing a progressive inability to use muscles for eye and body movements and speech. It occurs almost exclusively in girls. Only in rare cases are males affected.
Symptoms of Rett Syndrome closely mimic the characteristics of Autism. Now, however, individuals can still be diagnosed with Rett Syndrome medically, and may also have a diagnosis of Autism Spectrum Disorder if they meet that criteria. Rett syndrome signs and symptoms include:
Slowed Growth – Brain growth slows after birth. Smaller than normal head size (microcephaly) is usually the first sign that a child has Rett syndrome.
Loss of Normal Movement and Coordination – The first signs often include reduced hand control and a decreasing ability to crawl or walk normally.
Loss of Communication Abilities – Children with Rett syndrome typically begin to lose the ability to speak, to make eye contact and to communicate in other ways. this is also a common attribute of autism so you can see the close similarities.
Abnormal Hand Movements- Children with Rett syndrome typically develop repetitive, purposeless hand movements that may differ for each person. Many children with autism have self stimulating behaviors that are similar to this behavior.
Unusual Eye Movements – Children with Rett syndrome tend to have unusual eye movements, such as intense staring, blinking, crossed eyes or closing one eye at a time.
- Mood Disorders – Children suffering from this medical condition tend to become irritated and agitated easily.
- Physical Issues – Rett syndrome can be accompanied by breathing issues, abnormal curvature of the spine, an irregular heartbeat, and/or seizures.
Rett syndrome progresses through stages and gets worse as it moves through each. the Mayo Clinic and other clinics around the United States have recently been studying this disorder. Follow the links to find out more information about Rett syndrome.
Mayo Clinic Rett Syndrome
The National Organization for Rare Diseases – Rett Syndrome
In our last few blogs we have been discussing transitioning from the tween and teen years into adulthood. Whether a child (or soon-to-be-adult) has the skills to enter college, live independently, maintain a job or do typical self care routines is really dependent on the life skills they have practiced and learned over the years, whether in school, at home or through therapies. Most schools and therapists believe in using the skills in every area and having parents reinforce these skills in the same manner at home. Here is a quick check list of transitioning life skills to practice with your teen who is transitioning.
Life skills are not just checked off on a master list but rather repeated over and over again until it becomes an integral part of the child’s life. Some of the most important life skill include: self care, safety, self-esteem, self-advocacy, self regulation and independent living skills. Each task should be broken down into smaller tasks and repeated, repeated and repeated.
Here, at Advancing Milestones, we have our own series of checklists for transitioning teens. Find ours on our website, here. Our life skills are broken down into the following categories:
- Executive Functioning
- Technology and Consumerism
- Home, Food, Hygiene Related, Transportation and Leisure
- Self-Advocacy, Disability Related
- Medical Health, Mental Health and Sexuality
- Jobs and College
In addition to our lists, here are a few other resources that may be helpful.
Here is a detailed list from the Children’s Administration Division of Children and Family Services – Life Skills Inventory and Independent Living Skills Assessment Tool.
Here is an article with information on College programs and skills needed for Autistic children from the Interactive Autism Network.
The Autism Helper uses visual clues and step-by-step guides to help children learn skills. Read more.
Coming of age can be a bittersweet and anxiety-ridden time for both parents and children. Graduating from high school, finding a job, going to college, paying bills, and living independently are just a few of the major milestones. The list could go on and on. The road to adulthood is probably something parents of children on the spectrum have fretted over since the toddler years, and something children have anticipated for years. Careful planning for this transition should be an important part of the high school years. Let’s take a closer look at transition planning and some resources that will help you.
According the Interactive Autism Network, an unprecedented number of students with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) will leave high school and flood the U.S. adult disability system in the next couple of years. An estimated 50,000 Americans with ASD will turn 18 each year, as a part of “a surge of children” diagnosed in the 1990s. Planning ahead can mean the difference between gaining the right assistance for your adult-child and having to fight to gain access being offered to a growing number of people. Need help with transition planning? There are many resources and toolkits to help you navigate the legal and, sometimes, bureaucratic transition years.
- Talk to your child’s team. Include behaviorists, occupational and physical therapists as well as classroom teachers. This group can help you and your child begin the transitioning process very early in the high school years regardless of whether your child is at a specialty school like Milestones or at a public school.
- Plan for the years after your child turns 21. Students with a disability of any kind are protected by the disabilities act until they turn 21. From there, things get a bit tricky. While your adult-child may be eligible for adult services such as housing assistance, day programs, and career counseling and training, gaining access may be dependent upon funding both locally and nationally. Research what the guidelines are for your area.
- Research Transitioning Planning toolkits and resources with the help of your child’s team. Autism Speaks has a “Transition Tool Kit” that may help. The Arc- Autism Now also has an excellent list of resources and checklists that can help get you started. The Interactive Autism Network has several toolkits to help plan for job training, college or independent living depending upon your child’s trajectory.
Watching your child grow, mature and change can be bittersweet. Watching this evolution in a child who struggles with ASD or autism, can elicit a whole range of emotions. How will typical teenage rebellion look in someone who struggles with behavioral control? What will middle school and high school be like with a child that not only is dealing with hormonal changes but also the social, emotional and sensory issues common in a child with autism?
Research into autism in the teen years and beyond is still in its infancy: “very little is known about the course of ASD through adolescence and into young adulthood,” according to the Interactive Autism Network. Autism is a broad spectrum, and adolescence will affect each child differently. If recent studies are an indication, parents generally can expect some of the following positive changes along their child’s road to adulthood:
- Behavioral improvements across the spectrum. Adults with autism have less hyperactivity and irritability, and fewer repetitive behaviors (such as lining things up) and maladaptive (dysfunctional) behaviors, than children with autism.
- Improvements in daily living skills – such as getting dressed, keeping track of cash or making a sandwich.
Some negative changes may include:
A risk period for the onset of seizures in autism, although most teens do not develop epilepsy.
Childhood sleep problems may persist into adolescence, when insomnia and daytime sleepiness become the biggest concerns. Sleep changes are very common in typical teens but can be exaggerated in children with autism.
- Anxiety disorders may increase or develop during the teen years. Be aware of anxiety symptoms and work with team members and therapists to reduce anxiety in the classroom and at home.
- The gap between the students with autism and their peers widens in something called “executive functioning” during the teen years. Trouble with flexibility, organization, initiating activities and working memory are commonplace with executive functioning disorders that worsen or develop during the teen years.
Further Resources to help your teen in school.
Autism Speaks: Helping Teens with Autism Succeed in High School and Beyond
Psychology Today –Thirteen Things Parents of Teens with Autism Need to Know
According to the Family Caregiver Alliance and National Center for Caregiving, approximately 43.5 million caregivers have provided unpaid care to an adult or child in the last 12 months. This may be physical, emotional or mental support for a special needs child, as we see often in our field. Caregivers, however, often forget to care for the person who may need it the most – themselves.
Caring for a loved one, whether it is a close friend or a family member can be exhausting and emotionally and physically draining. The sleep deprivation, worry, stress, and poor eating habits because you are focused on caring for someone you love can cause you to become ill yourself. How ironic, isn’t it?
Here are ten New Year’s Resolutions to try this year if you are a caregiver.
- Accept Help – We know that no one does it quite like you do- but accept help whenever you can and do it without guilt. Be prepared with a list of ways that others can help you, and let the helper choose what he or she would like to do.
- Join a Support Group. There are millions of caregivers all over this country who know what you are going through and the stress that you feel. Talking is excellent therapy and a stress reducer.
- Do What You Can. You can not do everything without sending yourself to the hospital. Dole out jobs that may seem small but anything to take the burden and responsibilities off of you the better.
- Set a Routine. Everyone loves routine. Setting one can help your family member understand what is coming next and aid in transitions.
- Visit the Doctor. You probably have several doctor or therapy sessions for the person you are caring for, but, also, take care of yourself. Don’t skip your own appointments or self diagnose an illness.
- Connect Socially. Getting out as a caregiver might seem like a huge luxury but even connecting on social media may help.
- Recognize your Limitations. Everyone has a breaking point. Yours may be not getting enough sleep or not having enough help. Talk to other family members about your limitations and be honest.
Learn about the Family and Medical Leave Act (FMLA). If employed, take advantage of the Family and Medical Leave Act. This act requires employers with 50 or more employees to provide up to 12 weeks of unpaid, job-protected leave for employees who need time off to care for a seriously ill family member.
Get Outdoors. Even if it’s only a few minutes the fresh air and new perspective can do a world of good. If you have time, take a walk to keep yourself healthy.
- Get Sleep. Strive for a minimum of seven to eight hours of consecutive sleep in a 24-hour period. Nap when your loved one naps.
Let’s face it, we all have bad days every now and then. Usually we deal with the mood and move on. Most of us may even know and understand what caused the mood to begin with and how to avoid it in the future. If you have a child or teen with autism you may have to learn a whole new set of cues to help you understand situations where behavior becomes a problem.
Going out or encountering new stimuli, no matter how much you think you child may enjoy it, can be challenging. Planning in advance can mean the difference between a meltdown or avoiding unwanted behaviors. Here are a few suggestions we found online from parents who have been through this before.
- Be aware. Many parents know what stimuli whether visual, auditory or other trigger unwanted behaviors. Try avoiding situations that may cause anxiety and stress. For example, your child may enjoy keeping you company on outings but gets tired in the early afternoon, then plan your events for mornings or after a nap. Keep in mind this means that you may need to plan your day around stimuli that may cause problems but it may be worth it in the end.
Make Expectations Clear – You’ll get better cooperation if both you and your child are clear on what’s expected. Sit down with him/her and present the information verbally.
Have Options – If your child has meltdowns or is rude to someone in public, you have a few different options. You may need to experiment to determine what works best for your family. Removing the child from the situation may work best but you may also want to consider other options. Some parents have the child calm down and apologize. Even others keep a card in their pocket that explains that their child has autism. Still others only visit outing locations where they know people who are understanding and sympathetic.
- Talk to the Team – If your child has already been diagnosed, you may want to decide with his/her team of specialists including PT, OT and Behavioral Therapists what behavior modification you will use. If you are all on the same “page” it may make heading off unwanted behaviors easier.
- Avoid Transitioning without Warning – Transitions can be hard for kids, especially in the middle of something they are enjoying. Having transitional warnings gives children the chance to find a good stopping place for an activity and makes the transition less fraught. Tipping your child off that a transition is coming can ward off meltdown behaviors.